Orientation & Mobility Inventory
The NMSBVI Orientation & Mobility (O&M) Inventory was developed as a means of quantifying student progress across the many areas that make up O&M. The goal was to create a user friendly assessment tool that quickly allowed an O&M to identify areas of need for individual students. Further, there was a need to structure it in such a way as to allow paperwork averse O&Ms to easily track student progress over time. The Inventory aspires to meet these needs.
There are four critical pieces of information that users need to have:
The Inventory derives percentages based on ratings provided by users. The ratings are simple:
The user has a couple of options for navigating between pages of the Excel workbook. Most obviously, along the bottom edge of the screen are a number of tabs with names that correspond to the 15 domains covered in the Inventory. Clicking on a tab takes the user to that page. Alternately, at the bottom left of the screen there are arrows pointing left and right. The user can use the two left/right arrows in the middle of the set of four arrows to page through the Excel workbook one page at a time. The user can also use the two left/right arrows on the outside of the set of four arrows to jump to the front or back of the workbook. When the desired tab is seen, clicking on it takes the user to that page.
The Front Page includes the 15 domains covered in the Inventory (3a-17a), blue and yellow shaded areas, an area (1a) to insert the student’s name, and areas to insert the date (1b-1m) the Inventory is completed. Each blue and yellow column represents one assessment. There are 12 total blue and yellow columns which could be used to track progress on one student over 12 assessment periods. Those assessment periods could be quarterly, yearly, or more widely spaced depending on user need. Whatever the time period between assessments, the user will have data in one handy place (the page prints out as one sheet) over multiple assessment periods.
The other pages of the Inventory have a different layout from the front page. Most importantly, these are the pages where the user enters data. Once the appropriate page has been located the user enters the month (1f) and year (1g) the assessment is being completed. (If the user writes out the month, like ‘November’, most of the word will be hidden behind the next cells.) The user then enters data in the column under “Input Data” (column f). To the left of the column the user will see the criteria. The user then rates the student 0-5 (see above scale, which is repeated on each page of the Inventory). It is easiest to click on the first white cell under “Input Data”, enter the appropriate number, arrow down, enter the appropriate number and so on. Each page contains 12 different assessment periods, which go from left to right and from top to bottom—data is entered in 1f (1st assessment) then 1i (2nd assessment) then 1L (3rd assessment) then 1o (4th assessment), then down the page to the next set of four. The aggregate data is transferred automatically (so long as the user doesn’t corrupt the formulas) to the front page.
Preliminary usage has indicated that it takes about 30 minutes to complete the Inventory for a student who has worked on almost all of the assessment areas while reassessment takes 10-15 minutes; user mileage will vary. The Inventory was created with the measurable nature of IEPs in mind. Instead of crafting goals such as:
Student name will improve his crossings as demonstrated by consistently identifying parallel traffic in the near lane by pointing to the parallel traffic in the near lane 80% of trials/8 of ten trials by the end of the 2012 school year.
the user has the option of writing a goal such as:
Student name will improve from 69.9% on the street crossing domain of the NMSBVI O&M Inventory to 75% by the end of the 2012 school year.
Student name will improve from 83.3% to 88.5% on the NMSBVI O&M Inventory by the end of the 2012 school year.
The O&M can manipulate the numbers in the assessment to reflect the skills the student needs to improve in the coming year and record the percentages that result when the targeted skills are improved to the degree desired. For example, changing a score from 1 to 5 will impact the percentage for the module and the entire Inventory; the 5 is the target for the end of the year and the percentage that results from the change is what would be used in the IEP goal. (The number is then reset to 1 in this example, and the 5 – when the student earned it – would be in the next assessment period.) The Inventory will also help the O&M identify areas of need in order to focus instruction to the needs of the student. The data is quantifiable and attempts to get away from somewhat nebulous criteria like “90% of the time”.
It is unlikely that many students will score 100% on the NMSBVI O&M Inventory. The Inventory is designed to show progress over time in common areas of O&M instruction, not serve as a letter grade. Also, the Inventory is primarily designed for O&M students who are already in school as well as adults in rehab settings. Users will notice that the Concepts and Movement areas are not as thorough as other O&M tools designed for much younger children. With that being said, the Inventory is free to download by O&Ms regardless of population served; if O&Ms of very young children do find it useful in some way so much the better.
While testing out the Inventory it was revealed that students with multiple impairments tended to score very poorly and that their scores were not likely to improve dramatically over time. The NMSBVI O&M (M)Inventory was created specifically for students with multiple impairments. The 15 domains have been rethought with these students in mind. The result is a tool that will hopefully provide meaningful evaluation of students with MI.
The NMSBVI O&M Inventory and (M)Inventory are tools that O&Ms can use to assist in organizing instruction. They are not intended to replace the training and judgment of Certified Orientation & Mobility Specialists. O&Ms will cover topics not found in the Inventory and (M)Inventory and may not cover some topics in the Inventory and (M)Inventory.
As an added bonus, the Inventory – and (M)Inventory – has also proven useful in quickly dispatching other paperwork, such as PLEPs (Present Levels of Educational Performance) and progress notes in very short amounts of time. Here are examples of a PLEP and progress note (front page of Inventory truncated due to ‘portrait’ layout of this document) using the Inventory:
PRESENT LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE
According to the NMSBVI O&M Inventory, STUDENT scored well in the domains of concepts, movement, single room O&M, orientation and community skills. STUDENT needed to improve in the domains of street crossings, public transportation, atypical O&M, and vision specific O&M skills. He had already improved his skills in the area of rural travel. STUDENT was eager to learn and wanted to improve his skills. Street crossings would be one of the primary areas of focus and he had already begun to work at an even wider variety of intersections.
The measurable annual goals must align with the student’s needs and reflect how they support the student’s post-school goals.
Other: Orientation & Mobility
ANNUAL GOAL: (direction of change, the behavior, present level, ending level and timeframe for achieving the goal)
Date Initiated __May ?? 2011__________
STUDENT will improve his O&M skills as demonstrated by increasing his score on the NMSBVI O&M Inventory from 64.8% to a minimum of 74% by the end of May 2012.
As you can see, STUDENT has made quite a bit of progress on the Inventory since March. He’s getting close to his goal and will meet it by working in the domains of Street Crossings, Orientation, and Cane Skills. It is important to keep in mind that the 71.4% is not a letter grade but rather how much of the curriculum he has so far mastered.
UPDATE: August 21, 2012
The NMSBVI O&M Inventory has been updated to version 3.0. This version takes into account feedback from the AER International conference in Seattle. Two issues were raised by several people and have been addressed.
Issue 1: O&Ms wanted to see a change in the scoring so that zeros weren’t averaged into the final percentages. (Zeros represent skills that a student can’t learn or has no need to learn.) In the earlier versions, very few students could ever get to 100% because most students didn’t need all of the skills covered in the Inventory—those with vision didn’t need all of the non-visual skills and those without vision didn’t need the visual skills. After getting pointed in the right direction at AER, a bit more research has led to formulas that ignore the zeros. As a result, each student can get to 100% on the Inventory if they master all of the skills they need for safe and efficient travel.
Issue 2: O&Ms wanted to see a change to the front page to help parents understand that, say, a score of 30% doesn’t equal a failing grade. A section has been added to the front page where an O&M can insert the goal (in the form of a percentage) and the Inventory then shows how much progress has been made to that goal. This should help reassure parents that their student is making progress.
To download the Excel file, please
To download the Excel file, please
Inventory Eval. Shell
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Last Updated: 8/22/2012